Adaptive learning technologies are touted as an advance in education and a harbinger of what's to come. But although we at Lectica agree that adaptive learning has a great deal to offer, we have some concerns about its current limitations. In an earlier article, I raised the question of how well one of these platforms, Knewton, serves "robust learning"—the kind of learning that leads to deep understanding and usable knowledge. Here are some more general observations.
The great strength of adaptive learning technologies is that they allow students to learn at their own pace. That's big. It's quite enough to be excited about, even if it changes nothing else about how people learn. But in our excitement about this advance, the educational community is in danger of ignoring important shortcomings of these technologies.
First, adaptive learning technologies are built on adaptive testing technologies. Today, these testing technologies are focused on "correctness." Students are moved to the next level of difficulty based on their ability to get correct answers. This is what today's testing technologies measure best. However, although being able to produce or select correct answers is important, it is not an adequate indication of understanding. And without real understanding, knowledge is not usable and can't be built upon effectively over the long term.
Second, today's adaptive learning technologies are focused on a narrow range of content—the kind of content psychometricians know how to build tests for—mostly math and science (with an awkward nod to literacy). In public education during the last 20 years, we've experienced a gradual narrowing of the curriculum, largely because of high stakes testing and its narrow focus. Today's adaptive learning technologies suffer from the same limitations and are likely to reinforce this trend.
Third, the success of adaptive learning technologies is measured with standardized tests of correctness. Higher scores will help more students get into college—after all, colleges use these tests to decide who will be admitted. But we have no idea how well higher scores on these tests translate into life success. Efforts to demonstrate the relevance of educational practices are few and far between. And notably, there are many examples of highly successful individuals who were poor players in the education game—including several of the worlds' most productive and influential people.
Fourth, some proponents of online adaptive learning believe that it can and should replace (or marginalize) teachers and classrooms. This is concerning. Education is more than a process of accumulating facts. For one thing, it plays an enormous role in socialization. Good teachers and classrooms offer students opportunities to build knowledge while learning how to engage and work with diverse others. Great teachers catalyze optimal learning and engagement by leveraging students' interests, knowledge, skills, and dispositions. They also encourage students to put what they're learning to work in everyday life—both on their own and in collaboration with others.
Lectica has a strong interest in adaptive learning and the technologies that deliver it. We anticipate that over the next few years, our assessment technology will be integrated into adaptive learning platforms to help expand their subject matter and ensure that students are building robust, usable knowledge. We will also be working hard to ensure that these platforms are part of a well-thought out, evidence-based approach to education—one that fosters the development of tomorrow's skills—the full range of skills and knowledge required for success in a complex and rapidly changing world.