The assessment triangle: correctness, coherence, & complexity

How to use the assessment triangle diagnostically

An ideal educational assessment strategy—represented above in the assessment triangle—includes three indicators of learning—correctness (content knowledge), complexity (developmental level of understanding), and coherence (quality of argumentation). Lectical Assessments focus primarily on two areas of the triangle—complexity and coherence. Complexity is measured with the Lectical Assessment System, and coherence is measured with a set of argumentation rubrics focused on mechanics, logic, and persuasiveness. We do not focus on correctness, primarily because most assessments already target correctness.

At the center of the assessment triangle is a hazy area. This represents the Goldilocks Zone—the range in which the difficulty of learning tasks is just right for a particular student. To diagnose the Goldilocks Zone, educators evaluate correctness, coherence, and complexity, plus a given learner’s level of interest and tolerance for failure.

When educators work with Lectical Assessments, they use the assessment triangle to diagnose students’ learning needs. Here are some examples:

Level of skill (low, average, high) relative to expectations
CaseComplexityCoherenceCorrectness
Case 1highlowhigh
Case 2highhighlow
Case 3lowlowhigh
Case 4highhighhigh

Case 1

This student has relatively high complexity and correctness scores, but his performance is low in coherence. Because lower coherence scores suggest that he has not yet fully integrated his existing knowledge, he is likely to benefit most from participating in interesting activities that require applying existing knowledge in relevant contexts (using VCoL).

Case 2

This student’s scores are high relative to expectations. Her knowledge appears to be well integrated, but the low correctness suggests that there are gaps in her content knowledge relative to targeted content. Here, we would suggest filling in the missing content knowledge in a way that engages the learner and allows her to integrate it into her well-developed knowledge network.

Case 3

The scores received by this student are high for correctness, while they are low for complexity and coherence. This pattern suggests that the student is memorizing content without integrating it effectively into his or her knowledge network—and may have been doing this for some time. This student is most likely to benefit from applying their existing content knowledge in personally relevant contexts (using VCoL) until their coherence and complexity scores catch up with their correctness scores.

Case 4

The scores received by this student are high for correctness, complexity, and coherence. This pattern suggests that the student has a high level of proficiency. Here, we would suggest introducing new knowledge that’s just challenging enough to keep her in her personal Goldilocks zone.

Summing up

The assessment triangle helps educators optimize learning by ensuring that students are always learning in the Goldilocks Zone. This is a good thing, because students who spend more time in the Goldilocks Zone not only enjoy learning more, they learn better and faster.

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